Winter 2007
Home Up Mission Statement About Us Contact Us Site Locations For Teachers Outdoor Education Local Natural Areas Native Plants Conservation Links Sustainable Living Summer Newsletter Programs








Woods of Wisdom

Winter 2006

"All ethics so far evolved rest upon a single premise: that the individual is a member of a community of interdependent parts. The land ethic simply enlarges the boundaries of the community to include soils, waters, plants and animals, or collectively, the land ... a land ethic changes the role of Homo Sapiens from conqueror of the land – community to plain member and citizen of it ... it implies respect for his fellow members, and so also respect for the community as such."

--- Aldo Leopold, "Sand County Almanac"

Butterfly Habitat

With winter on its way, it may seem odd to be thinking about butterflies. Perhaps for some, thinking nostalgically about beautiful Lepidoptera flying gracefully among the wildflowers in green meadows under blue summer skies is enough. But there are other souls who cannot help but think ahead to next spring, and what they might put in their garden to attract butterflies to visit.

The following article from the United States Geographical Survey gives some valuable hints to what strategies might be most successful.

Dr. Ron Royer of Minot is a butterfly expert. His telephone number at Minot State University is 701-858-3209. His e-mail address is

He has developed an internet site entitled, Atlas of North Dakota Butterflies. This site includes pictures and can be found at:

Ron also has published Butterflies of North Dakota which includes colored plates, range maps and general biological information.

The following is a very brief overview of butterflies by Dr. Royer:

As a general rule, most environmentally sensitive and conservation-important butterflies prefer white and pink/purple/red blooms to yellow ones (e.g., Cirsium, Monarda, and Echinacea are much better than Ratibida and Rudbeckia). My usual advice to butterfly gardening aspirants is to prefer native to exotic or highly bred garden ornamentals (despite the most prolific and more showy nature of the latter), because the adult appearance of many native butterfly species is phenologically coordinated with the rather specific nectar (i.e., "fuel") sources. A good example is the June emergence of the conservation-sensitive grass skippers (Hesperia dacotae and ottoe, Polites origenes, and Atrytone arogos) in time with the seasonal bloom of such species as Echinaces, Lilium, and Zygadenus.

Among traditional garden ornamentals, composites (e.g., marigolds and zinnias) are by far the most productive butterfly attractors in terms of overall species richness of butterfly visitations.

Then there is the issue of larval food plants (actually far more important to the conservation of native butterfly species). Unfortunately, most everything butterflies prefer, gardeners do not (e.g., nettles, thistles, etc.).

bulletSkippers - unmowed native prairie grasses and native legumes (Locoweed, etc.).
bulletSwallowtails - umbellifers (carrots, dill, parsley)
bulletWhites and sulphurs - crucifers and legumes (i.e., food crops)
bulletLycaenids - docks, pinkweed, wild buckwheats, native legumes (e.g., Thermopsis, Oxytropis, Lupinus, etc.)
bulletBrushfoots - "weeds" generally, including representatives of just about every plant family, including nettles, various wild asters, and so forth
bulletSatyrs and Nymphs - native grasses and sedges

Unless one is willing to sustain a one-acre native prairie or native woodlot in the yard (including most of the plant species that the usual lawn-grower 2-4-Ds to death), flowers are likely to attract mostly garden pests (cabbage butterflies, alfalfa butterflies, and so forth). The same unfortunately, is true to CRP land. This, of course, is why butterflies are such good indicators of undisturbed native habitats - they can tell far better than we when a place has been "disturbed". Typically they do so by being absent.

The best butterfly habitat in cities is found in long-vacant lots that most citizens describe as "eyesores". Why? Precisely because they are not "managed," but rather "neglected" for long enough that "weeds" get firmly established.


The Shy, Egg-Stealing Neighbor You Didn't Know You Had


New York Times

Published: November 6, 2005

The suburbs, pretty as they may be, are nobody's idea of nature in balance. Sure, they are lush, green places where people and their vehicles get along with flowers, vegetables, songbirds and the littler mammals. But this harmony is enforced with an iron fist. It takes lots of chemicals, artificial irrigation and gas-powered trimming and mowing to keep such an arbitrary ecosystem under control.

Leave it to nature to mount an insurgency against the tranquility of the grass-and-pavement grid. Canada geese and white-tail deer are the most brazen intruders, multiplying beyond all reason and refusing to be subdued. The best-equipped predators, people, sidestepped the job, finding it distasteful. Instead they adjust their garden netting, check for ticks and brood about the tendency of their fallen Eden to keep collapsing into chaos.

But what if that didn't always happen? What if Mother Nature decided not to run amok but to tidy up?

Just such an amazing circumstance appears to be happening on the outskirts of Chicago. Research biologists there announced last month that they had stumbled across a possible answer to the problem of the proliferating suburban goose: the proliferating suburban coyote.

The researchers belong to the Cook County Coyote Project, which has spent nearly six years studying the habits of more than 200 coyotes in the northern and western Chicago suburbs. Among other things, they tried to determine what the growing numbers of these beasts might have had to do with another puzzling development: the sudden end of the goose explosion. The local population of Canada geese had soared in the 1980's and 90's, but by 2000 the increase had slowed to about only 1 percent a year. An unknown predator was assumed to be the reason.

The coyote was not an obvious suspect, being small and skulky and unlikely to stand up to a wrathful Canada goose. Examinations of coyote scat had seldom found damning traces of eggshell. But then infrared cameras exposed the coyote as a nest robber, one that carefully cracks open a goose egg and licks it clean.

Evidence like this bolsters the conclusion that coyotes, in their own wily way, have become keystone predators in a land long emptied of wolves and mountain lions. The Cook County project's principal investigator, Prof. Stanley Gehrt of Ohio State University, speaks admiringly of his subjects, who have withstood more than 200 years of hunting, trapping and poisoning and are more entrenched in North America than ever. Every state but Hawaii has them. They have spread into suburbs and cities, forcing biologists to revise their definition of coyote habitat to this: Basically anywhere.

Here is what is really strange: Humans have barely noticed. Egg-rustling, night-howling varmints are raising litters in storm drains, golf courses, parks and cemeteries. They are sometimes heard but seldom seen. In cities, they keep to themselves and work nights.

There are coyotes, Professor Gehrt says, living in the Chicago Loop.

You could call that sneaky. Or you could call it discreet. Professor Gehrt said that one surprising discovery of the study was how little danger the coyote poses to his unwitting human neighbors. "The risk is quite low, as long as we don't monkey with their behavior," he said. If you assert yourself when you see one - by yelling, cursing and throwing sticks - it will respect your space and lie low. The coyote's tendency to avoid people - and more important, raccoons - has made rabies a no issue, Professor Gehrt said, with only one case of coyote-to-human transmission ever recorded.

Coyotes will behave, he said, as long as people do not feed them. Leave nothing tasty outside in an open trash can or food dish, and definitely nothing small and fluffy at the end of a leash. Professor Gehrt says with confidence that the sensible suburban toddler has little to fear from the suburban coyote, but he will not say the same for the suburban Shih Tzu.

The Cook County Coyote Project is the largest and most comprehensive of its kind, but it is just one study. It is probably not the time to call for coyote subsidies and captive-breeding programs for goose-plagued subdivisions. But any effort to learn more about these creatures - like a four-year coyote study being done in Westchester County by New York State and Cornell University - is highly welcome. It is intriguing to consider the possibility that such a shunned, maligned animal may be a misunderstood hero. The suburbs could use well-mannered, responsible predators, and house cats are clearly not up to the job.

Notes from the Urban Forest

This past growing season has been stressful for trees. We’ve just had one of the worst droughts in the history of the region. When the soil is dry and there is no snow cover for insulation, winter deep freezes go to the roots of trees, freeze-drying the vital absorbing roots. As of this writing, it looks like we’re having another dry fall. So water your trees, even after leaf fall, to prevent winter root damage.

During the later part of the summer many trees of various species were showing signs of scorch. This is a non-infectious disease caused by heat and humidity.

What can we do for our trees? Basic hygiene comes first. The pruning of dead, diseased and storm-damaged limbs improves both the appearance and longevity of trees. To not prune these provides inroads for rotting fungi and wood boring insects. Remember: correct pruning improves tree health; incorrect pruning hastens tree decline. A Certified Arborist is the best person to determine appropriate pruning.

Speaking of pruning, late fall and winter are excellent times to prune. This is especially true of oak trees. Perhaps you have seen articles in the media about a disease called oak wilt. This is becoming more and more of a problem in the Kankakee River Valley. Previously this disease had been confined to the south side of the river, but this year I have seen it in and around Kankakee River State Park on the north side. I have even seen it in Bourbonnais subdivisions.

If you’ve got oak trees you should be concerned about this disease. In red oaks and pin oaks it is usually fatal, often killing the tree within weeks. It is also a problem with white oaks and burr oaks, but usually takes longer to kill the tree. There is a preventative treatment that can be used before signs are showing on red oak but it is not effective once symptoms are present. In white oak or burr oak, however, the same treatment can be effective even after symptoms are showing.

The symptoms of oak wilt include browning along leaf margins, then working inward toward a green center. Also the outer sapwood shows brown streaking when the outer bark is stripped back. The diagnosis should be made by a certified arborist because there are several less serious diseases that may look similar. Or, you may send samples to the plant clinic at the University of Illinois. Your Kankakee county Extension Agent may be able to help determine the best tactic.

Another tree disease on the increase this past season was verticillium wilt. This soil-bourn fungus enters through the roots and clogs the vascular system, reducing the ability of the tree to pull moisture from the roots. This does not usually cause the sudden death of the tree, but usually causes scattered limbs to wilt and die, as well as major sections of the crown. Verticillium wilt is a problem primarily in maples and ash in our area, but dozens of other species of trees and shrubs are also susceptible.

There is a treatment for this disease, but it is only effective if caught early. So check your maples, especially Norway and sugar maples, for wilting in late May/early June of next year.

There is much more that can be said of the plethora of tree diseases, and even more about tree-attacking insects. But I only have time right now to mention one more pest – the Japanese beetle.

Every year they seem to gain in population and this last season was no exceptional The one consolation, however, is that the damage these insects do by skeletonizing the leaves is not nearly as serious to the health of the tree as it may appear. Currently the best control of Japanese beetles is either to pick them off or spray every ten days while they are present (several weeks). A new treatment is being researched that may allow one treatment for season long control.

Well, that’s all for now. I haven’t meant to accentuate the negative with this article, but I felt it important to get the word out. All too often I get calls to look at trees that could have been saved, but by the time I see them the problem is too far progressed.

Rob Frothingham, Certified Arborist & Landscape Architect

A closer look shows state's diversity of ecosystems

September 11, 2005



HOPKINS PARK, Ill. -- Fran Harty spread his arms as if embracing the savanna. "When we flew over this place, we wanted to jump out,'' said Harty, one of the naturalists who catalogued the Illinois Natural Areas Survey in 1978."It's a true savanna here.''

That's one of the oddest things anybody has said about Pembroke Township, a godforsaken, poverty-stricken area in eastern Kankakee County. That may be the reason that Illinois' best savannas are in Pembroke.

Fire is essential to preserving savannas. In the poor, law-unto-itself world of Pembroke, burning trash is how garbage is collected. Unintentionally, small fires regularly break free to maintain savannas.

Last month, I took a tour with Harty, a 55-year-old director of land conservation for The Nature Conservancy. We began in neighboring St. Anne Township at the 640-acre Mskoda Sands Preserve, part of the Kankakee Sands project on both sides of the Illinois/Indiana line.

TNC has been actively building and buying thousands of acres for the Kankakee Sands project, which is named for the "sandy soils, which support globally significant oak barrens, prairies and sedge meadows.''

Mskoda Sands is a recent purchase, very much in the process of being restored as black oak barrens. As we walked around, Harty bent and showed me the one Illinois true cactus, common prickly pear cactus.

For much of my life, staring at black oak barrens, savannas or prairies did nothing for me. But I'm learning the richness, the diversity of these places. Traipsing around with somebody like Harty only enriches that.

Our next stop was a small patch of true savanna to the east in Pembroke. "If we were Potawatomi, we would feel right at home,'' Harty said.

Illinois' highest call counts for bobwhite quail regularly come from the Pembroke savannas. "This is perfect habitat for quail,'' he said."They love legumes.'' With that he bent and pointed out three ideal native legumes: round-headed bush clover, goat's rue and partridge pea.

He showed the mounds of dirt thrown around by plains pocket gophers -- "We consider them an ecosystem engineer.''

Harty launched into a description of Illinois savannas as a kaleidoscope: blue in spring with birdfoot violets, white with flowering spurge, blue with blazing star and yellow in the fall with sunflowers and goldenrod.

"It's no secret why we make our parks look like savannas: we feel safe,'' Harty said.

He's right. But where our parks are far too often simply grass and shade trees, savannas are much more complex, richer and healthier.

Our next stop wasn't a TNC project, but Iroquois County State Wildlife Area, one of my favorite hiking and hunting places. For Harty, it is much more.

"The biodiversity here is unusual,'' he said. There's sedge meadow, wet prairie, savanna and woods. "This is the whole gradient.''

On a mission, he marched us off to a back piece. He wanted to show me a sundew, a rare carnivorous plant tinier than a fingernail. After crawling around on his knees for a while, he found it.

Then we crossed into the Indiana portion of Kankakee Sands, where restoration is much farther along, to the point where some areas are open for hunting. (Hunting is managed by Willow Slough Fish & Wildlife Area.) About 3,700 of the 7,000 acres along Route 41 in Indiana have been retired or restored so far.

TNC Kankakee Sands offices sit on remnants of Bogus Island, once the great hideout for horse thieves and counterfeiters in the 1800s. There's something I enjoy in that connection to the past.

For information on TNC's Illinois projects, go online to:

Bowman may be reached at "Bowman's Outdoor Line'' is heard on "Outdoors with Mike Norris'' (3-4 p.m. Thursdays, 1280-AM).

Fowler’s Toad at Sweet Fern Savanna











Borders of flowers define the street.

By the blue chicory we will meet.

By the burning bush we’ll know it is fall.

And by the ponds Canada geese will call.

White Queen Anne’s lace will spoil the corn

But brown whippoorwills underneath are born.

The cardinals hide in evergreen trees.

Gophers dig holes to escape the freeze.

Goldenrod paints ditches yellow not blue.

Little purple asters much bigger grew.

All the lawns are no longer green.

Lightening sparks so new details are seen.

Thunder follows God’s bursts of light.

Hearing and seeing prove His might.

He came to show us His infinite power.

And gives us fresh talents every hour.

---- Betty Buck Reynolds

Kankakee, Illinois



Classification of Wetlands and Deepwater Habitats of the United States

Thanks again to the United States Geological Survey for the description that follows, detailing the characteristics of typical North American wetland habitats. Water is one of the most precious of the natural resources, and fresh water is not in unlimited supply. The name for our planet might very well be called Ocean, because 97.2 % of Earth’s water is saltwater oceans and seas. Only 2.8 % is freshwater, of which 2.15 % is bound up in polar ice caps and glaciers. Freshwater lakes hold 0.009% of Earth’s freshwater, saline lakes and inland seas hold 0.0008 %, soil moisture is 0.0005 %, stream channels hold 0.00001% and the atmosphere holds 0.001 %. Groundwater holds 0.62 % of all available fresh water. Until recently, wetlands have been the orphan of our ecosystems, little understood and generally considered to be wasteland. Little was understood about the role of wetland in maintaining water reserves, recharging groundwater levels, providing flood management, and purifying fresh water resources. Today, many scientists and engineers advocate a nonstructural approach to protecting groundwater resources and providing flood control. They suggest that an alternative to artificial levees, dams, and channelization is sound floodplain management. By identifying high risk areas, appropriate zoning regulations can be implemented to minimize development and promote more appropriate land use.

Moss-Lichen Wetland

Definition. The Moss-Lichen Wetland Class includes areas where mosses or lichens cover substrates other than rock and where emergents, shrubs, or trees make up less than 30% of the areal cover. The only water regime is saturated.

Description. Mosses and lichens are important components of the flora in many wetlands, especially in the north, but these plants usually form a ground cover under a dominant layer of trees, shrubs, or emergents. In some instances higher plants are uncommon and mosses or lichens dominate the flora. Such Moss-Lichen Wetlands are not common, even in the northern United States where they occur most frequently.

Subclasses and Dominance Types.

· Moss. -- Moss Wetlands are most abundant in the far north. Areas covered with peat mosses (Sphagnum spp.) are usually called bogs (Golet and Larson 1974; Jeglum et al. 1974; Zoltai et al. 1975), whether Sphagnum or higher plants are dominant. In Alaska, Drepanocladus and the liverwort Chiloscyphus fragilis may dominate shallow pools with impermanent water; peat moss and other mosses (Campylium stellatum, Aulacomnium palustre, and Oncophorus wahlenbergii) are typical of wet soil in this region (Britton 1957; Drury 1962).

· Lichen. -- Lichen Wetlands are also a northern Subclass. Reindeer moss (Cladina rangiferina) forms the most important Dominance Type. Pollett and Bridgewater (1973) described areas with mosses and lichens as bogs or fens, the distinction being based on the availability of nutrients and the particular plant species present. The presence of Lichen Wetlands has been noted in the Hudson Bay Lowlands (Sjörs 1959) and in Ontario (Jeglum et al. 1974).

Emergent Wetland

Definition. The Emergent Wetland Class is characterized by erect, rooted, herbaceous hydrophytes, excluding mosses and lichens. This vegetation is present for most of the growing season in most years. These wetlands are usually dominated by perennial plants. All water regimes are included except subtidal and irregularly exposed.

Description. In areas with relatively stable climatic conditions, Emergent Wetlands maintain the same appearance year after year. In other areas, such as the prairies of the central United States, violent climatic fluctuations cause them to revert to an open water phase in some years (Stewart and Kantrud 1972). Emergent Wetlands are found throughout the United States and occur in all Systems except the Marine. Emergent Wetlands are known by many names, including marsh, meadow, fen, prairie pothole, and slough. Areas that are dominated by pioneer plants which become established during periods of low water are not Emergent Wetlands and should be classified as Vegetated Unconsolidated Shores or Vegetated Streambeds.










Subclasses and Dominance Types.

bulletPersistent. -- Persistent Emergent Wetlands are dominated by species that normally remain standing at least until the beginning of the next growing season. This Subclass is found only in the Estuarine and Palustrine Systems.
Persistent Emergent Wetlands dominated by saltmarsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora), saltmeadow cordgrass (S. patens), big cordgrass (S. cynosuroides), needlerush (Juncus roemerianus), narrow-leaved cattail (Typha angustifolia), and southern wild rice (Zizaniopsis miliacea) are major components of the Estuarine systems of the Atlantic and Gulf Coasts of the United States. On the Pacific Coast, common pickleweed (Salicornica Virginica), sea blite (Suaeda californica), arrow grass (Triglochin maritimum), and California cordgrass (Spartina foliosa) are common dominants.
Palustrine Persistent Emergent Wetlands contain a vast array of grasslike plants such as cattails (Typha spp.), bulrushes (Scirpus spp.), saw grass (Cladium jamaicense), sedges (Carex spp.); and true grasses such as reed (Phragmites australis), manna grasses (Glyceria spp.), slough grass (Beckmannia syzigachne), and whitetop (Scolochloa festucacea). There is also a variety of broad-leaved persistent emergents such as purple loosestrife (Lythrum salicaria), dock (Rumex mexicanus), waterwillow (Decodon verticillatus), and many species of smartweeds (Polygonum).
bulletNonpersistent. -- Wetlands in this Subclass are dominated by plants which fall to the surface of the substrate or below the surface of the water at the end of the growing season so that, at certain seasons of the year, there is no obvious sign of emergent vegetation. For example, wild rice (Zizania aquatica) does not become apparent in the North Central States until midsummer and fall, when it may form dense emergent stands. Nonpersistant emergents also include species such as arrow arum (Peltandra virginica), pickerelweed (Pontederia cordata), and arrowheads (Sagittaria spp.). Movement of ice in Estuarine, Riverine, or Lacustrine Systems often removes all traces of emergent vegetation during the winter. Where this occurs the area should be classified as Nonpersistant Emergent Wetland.

Scrub-Shrub Wetland

horizontal rule


Definition. The Class Scrub-Shrub Wetland includes areas dominated by woody vegetation less than 6 m (20 feet) tall. The species include true shrubs, young trees, and trees or shrubs that are small or stunted because of environmental conditions. All water regimes except subtidal are included.

Description. Scrub-Shrub Wetlands may represent a successional stage leading to Forested Wetland, or they may be relatively stable communities. They occur only in the Estuarine and Palustrine Systems, but are one of the most widespread classes in the United States (Shaw and Fredine 1956). Scrub-Shrub Wetlands are known by many names, such as shrub swamp (Shaw and Fredine 1956), shrub carr (Curtis 1959), bog (Heinselman 1970), and pocosin (Kologiski 1977). For practical reasons we have also included forests composed of young trees less than 6 m tall.

Subclasses and Dominance Types.

bulletBroad-leaved Deciduous. -- In Estuarine System Wetlands the predominant deciduous and broad-leaved trees or shrubs are plants such as sea-myrtle (Baccharis halimifolia) and marsh elder (Iva frutescens). In the Palustrine System typical Dominance Types are alders (Alnus spp.), willows (Salix spp.), buttonbush (Cephalanthus occidentalis), red osier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), honeycup (Zenobia pulverulenta), spirea (Spiraea douglasii), bog birch (Betula pumila), and young trees of species such as red maple (Acer rubrum) or black spruce (Picea mariana).
bulletNeedle-leaved Deciduous. -- This Subclass, consisting of wetlands where trees or shrubs are predominantly deciduous and needleleaved, is represented by young or stunted trees such as tamarack or bald cypress (Taxodium distichum).
bulletBroad-leaved Evergreen. -- In the Estuarine System, vast wetland acreages are dominated by mangroves (Rhizophora mangle, Languncularia racemosa, Conocarpus erectus, and Avicennia germinans) that are less than 6 m tall. In the Palustrine System, the broad-leaved evergreen species are typically found on organic soils. Northern representatives are labrador tea (Ledum groenlandicum), bog rosemary (Andromeda glaucophylla), bog laurel (Kalmia polifolia), and the semi-evergreen leatherleaf (Chamaedaphne calyculata). In the south, fetterbush (Lyonia lucida), coastal sweetbells (Leucothoe axillaris), inkberry (Ilex glabra), and the semi-evergreen black ti-ti (Cyrilla racemiflora) are characteristic broad-leaved evergreen species.
bulletNeedle-leaved Evergreen. -- The dominant species in Needle-leaved Evergreen Wetlands are young or stunted trees such as black spruce or pond pine (Pinus serotina).
bulletDead. -- Dead woody plants less than 6 m tall dominate Dead Scrub-Shrub Wetlands. These wetlands are usually produced by a prolonged rise in the water table resulting from impoundment of water by landslides, man, or beavers. Such wetlands may also result from various other factors such as fire, salt spray, insect infestation, air pollution, and herbicides.

Forested Wetland

horizontal rule

Definition. The Class Forested Wetland is characterized by woody vegetation that is 6 m tall or taller. All water regimes are included except subtidal.

Description. Forested Wetlands are most common in the eastern United States and in those sections of the West where moisture is relatively abundant, particularly along rivers and in the mountains. They occur only in the Palustrine and Estuarine Systems and normally possess an overstory of trees, an understory of young trees or shrubs, and a herbaceous layer. Forested Wetlands in the Estuarine System, which include the mangrove forests of Florida, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands, are known by such names as swamps, hammocks, heads, and bottoms. These names often occur in combination with species names or plant associations such as cedar swamp or bottomland hardwoods.

Subclasses and Dominance Types.

bulletBroad-leaved Deciduous. -- Dominant trees typical of Broadleaved Deciduous Wetlands, which are represented throughout the United States, are most common in the South and East. Common dominants are species such as red maple, American elm (Ulmus americana), ashes (Fraxinus pennsylvanica and F. nigra), black gum (Nyssa sylvatica), tupelo gum (N. aquatica), swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor), overcup oak (Q. lyrata), and basket oak (Q. michauxii). Wetlands in this subclass generally occur on mineral soils or highly decomposed organic soils.
bulletNeedle-leaved Deciduous. -- The southern representative of the Needle-leaved Deciduous Subclass is bald cypress (Taxodium distichum), which is noted for its ability to tolerate long periods of surface inundation. Tamarack is characteristic of the Boreal Forest Region, where it occurs as a dominant on organic soils. Relatively few other species are included in this Subclass.
bulletBroad-Leaved Evergreen. -- In the Southeast, Broadleaved Evergreen Wetlands reach their greatest development. Red bay (Persea borbonia), loblolly bay (Gordonia lasianthus), and sweet bay (Magnolia virginiana) are prevalent, especially on organic soils. This Subclass also includes red mangrove, black mangrove (Avicennia germinans), and white mangrove (Languncularia racemosa), which are adapted to varying levels of salinity.
bulletNeedle-leaved Evergreen. -- Black spruce, growing on organic soils, represents a major dominant of the Needle-leaved Evergreen Subclass in the North. Though black spruce is common on nutrient-poor soils, Northern white cedar (Thuja occidentalis) dominates northern wetlands on more nutrient-rich sites. Along the Atlantic Coast, Atlantic white cedar (Chamaecyparis thyoides) is one of the most common dominants on organic soils. Pond pine is a common needle-leaved evergreen found in the Southeast in association with dense stands of broad-leaved evergreen and deciduous shrubs.
Dead. -- Dead Forested Wetlands are dominated by dead woody vegetation taller than 6 m (20 feet). Like Dead Scrub-Shrub Wetlands, they are most common in, or around the edges of, man-made impoundments and beaver ponds. The same factors that produce Dead Scrub-Shrub Wetlands produce Dead Forested Wetlands

All the rivers run into the sea; yet the sea is not full; unto the place from whence the rivers come, thither they return again. (Ecclesiastes 1:7)


Mission Statement] [About Us] [Programs] [Site Locations] [Newsletter Back Issues] [Conservation]  [Outdoor Education]  [Plants] [Sustainable Links] [Local Natural Areas] [Current Newsletter] [Audubon Field Trips] [Contact Us] [Home]

last updated on August 26, 2013